Download the associated Workbook for this lesson

Now we have covered the **SUM** function in detail and also covered **formula arguments** and **formula syntax** we will use half of this lesson to look at some of Excels easy to use **Functions**. Although these functions are among the easiest to use they are also arguably the most useful.

Once we have covered these functions we will go into some detail on Excels **Insert Function**. The Insert Function was known as the **Paste Function** in earlier versions of Excel. The **Insert Function** houses all of Excel’s built-in functions under their appropriate categories and goes a long way to writing the chosen function for us. In case you are wondering why we don’t just skip all the detail and go straight to the **Insert Function** and make life easier for us all, it is because I firmly believe that the most important aspects of Excel and it’s functions and formulas is understanding them. I like to believe that by course completion I will have taught you Excel, not shown it to you!

The functions we shall look at first are:

- AVERAGE
- COUNT
- COUNTA
- COUNTBLANK
- COUNTIF
- MAX
- MIN
- SUMIF

We will Start each description with what the function does, followed by its **syntax** and then the number of **arguments** it can accept. It is important to note that while some functions take more than one argument it is **not always** the case that they must all be supplied.

These arguments are known as **option arguments** and I will identify these in the syntax description by not bolding the argument. For example the **SUM** function can take up to 30 arguments, but only **one** of the thirty **needs** to be supplied, so I would show this as below, eg:

**Syntax** SUM(**number1**,number2,. . . ) Meaning “number2,…. to number 30” are all optional arguments while “**number1**” must be supplied.

**AVERAGE**

The AVERAGE function is used to return the average of the arguments supplied.

**Syntax**

AVERAGE(**number1**,number2, . . . )

The AVERAGE function can take up to 30 arguments.

The arguments supplied must be numeric or references to numeric values. Text and/or references to text are ignored. It is important to note that cells containing zeros are **NOT** ignored. This can give you unexpected results if you are not aware of it.

**=AVERAGE(A1:A3)** would equal 10 if A1:A3 contained 5, 10, 15 respectively

**COUNT**

The COUNT function is used to count numbers or references to numbers in a range.

**Syntax**

COUNT(**value1**,value2, . . . )

The COUNT function takes up to 30 arguments and each argument can be a variety of data types, but only numbers are counted.

If the range reference supplied contains valid dates these will also be counted.

**=COUNT(A1:A5)** would equal 3 if cells A1:A5 contained 10, 12/12/2001, house, 0, dog

**COUNTA**

The COUNTA function is used to count non-empty cells.

Syntax

COUNTA(**value1**,value2, . . . )

The COUNTA function takes up to 30 arguments and each argument should be a reference to a range. Cells within the range can be a variety of data types, but only non-empty cells are counted.

**=COUNTA(A1:A5)** would equal 4 if cells A1:A5 contained , 12/12/2001, house, 0, dog.

In other words **A1** is empty and so is not counted while all other cells are.

**COUNTBLANK**

The COUNTBLANK function is used to count empty cells. It is the opposite of the COUNTA function

**Syntax**

COUNTBLANK(**range**)

The COUNTBLANK function takes 1 argument and this argument should be a reference to a range. Cells within the range can be a variety of data types, but only empty cells are counted

**=COUNTBLANK(A1:A5)** would equal 1 if cells A1:A5 contained , 12/12/2001, house, 0, dog

In other words **A1** is empty and so is counted while all other cells are not.

**COUNTIF**

The COUNTIF function is used to count cells within a range that meet a specified criterion.

**Syntax**

COUNTIF(**range,criteria**)

The COUNTIF function takes two (2) arguments. The **range** argument is a reference to a range of cells, while the **criteria** argument is the criterion that should be met by the cells within range before they are counted. The criteria specified can be in the form of a number, text or an expression.

**Number criteria**

**=COUNTIF(A1:A5,20)** would equal 1 if cells A1:A5 contained 15, 22, 20, 0, dog

In other words **A3** is the only cell that meets the criteria of **20**

Text criteria

**=COUNTIF(A1:A5,”dog”)** would equal 1 if cells A1:A5 contained 15, 22, 20, 0, dog

In other words **A5** is the only cell that meets the criteria of “**dog**”

**Expression criteria**

**=COUNTIF(A1:A5,”<20”)** would equal 2 if cells A1:A5 contained 15, 22, 20, 0, dog.

In other words **A1** and **A4** are the only cells that meets the criteria of “**<20**”.

**MAX**

The MAX function is used to return the largest number from a set of values.

**Syntax**

MAX(**number1**,number2,. . . )

The MAX function takes up to 30 arguments and will ignore text.

**=MAX(A1:A5)** would equal 10 if cells A1:A5 contained 9, 8, house, 10, -10

**MIN**

Opposite to Max, the MIN function is used to return the smallest number from a set of values.

**Syntax**

MIN(**number1**,number2,. . . )

The MIN function takes up to 30 arguments and will ignore text.

**=MIN(A1:A5)** would equal 1 if cells A1:A5 contained 9, 8, house, 10, 1.

**SUMIF**

The SUMIF function is used to return the sum value from a specified range that meets a criterion.

**Syntax**

SUMIF(**range,criteria**,sum_range)

The SUMIF takes up to 3 arguments. The **range** is the range of cells to evaluate to see if they meet the specified criteria. The criteria specified can be in the form of a number, text or an expression. The **sum_range** is the range of cells to sum, but only if the corresponding cells in the range meet the specified criteria. If **sum_range** is omitted then the cells within the range are summed.

**=SUMIF(A1:A5,5)** would equal 10 if cells A1:A5 contained 5, 8, house, 10, 5

In other words cells **A1** and **A5** would be summed as they meet the criteria and NO **sum_range** was supplied.

**=SUMIF(A1:A5,5,B1:B5)** would equal 20 if cells A1:A5 contained 5, 8, 1, 9, 5 and cells B1:B5 contained 10,1,3,8,10.

In other words cells B1 and B5 would be summed as the corresponding cells in A1:A5 have a value of 5.

**=SUMIF(A1:A5,”Cat”,B1:B5)** would equal 15 if cells A1:A5 contained Cat, cat, Cat, 9, 5 and cells B1:B5 contained 5,5,5,8,11

In other words cells B1,B2 and B3 would be summed as the corresponding cells in A1:A5 contain the text “Cat” (not case sensitive).

**=SUMIF(A1:A5,”>5”)** would equal 34 if cells A1:A5 contained 10, 15, Cat, 9, 5 and In other words cells A1, A2 and A4 would be summed as they meet the criteria of being greater than 5.

Lots More On Excel Formulas Here

Microsoft ® and Microsoft Excel ® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. OzGrid is in no way associated with Microsoft

Go back to:

See also:

See also: Index to Excel VBA Code and Index to Excel Freebies and Lesson 1 - Excel Fundamentals and Index to how to… providing a range of solutions and Index to new resources and reference sheets

Click here to visit our Free 24/7 Excel/VBA Help Forum where there are thousands of posts you can get information from, or you can join the Forum and post your own questions.