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Worksheet Change Event: Automatically Run Excel Macros When a Cell Changes


Excel VBA: Automatically Run Excel Macros When a Cell Changes/Enter Data. Worksheet Change Event

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Auto Run Excel Macros Upon Data Entry.

Excel has the ability to automatically run/execute any Excel macro code of our choosing when data in any cell on a Worksheet changes. We can do this via the Worksheet_Change event. We can even specify which cell/cells must be changed before running our code.

Worksheet_Change Event

In Excel 97 Microsoft introduced what are called Events , one of these is the Worksheet_Change Event.  The Worksheet_Change event is a procedure of the Worksheet Object and as such, the Worksheet_Change procedure MUST reside in the private module of the Worksheet Object.

Accessing the Private Module of the Worksheet Object

There are at least 2 ways to gain access to the private module of the Worksheet Object.

1) While in Excel proper, right click on the Worksheet name tab and choose View Code.

2) While in the VBE double click the Module called Sheet* (Sheet*), seen in the Project Explorer (View>Project Explorer (Ctrl+R)) under Microsoft Excel Objects.

Once here, you can select "Worksheet" from the Object drop down list, located in the top left of the module pane. After you have selected "Worksheet" Excel will default to;

Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range)

Note, in Excel 97 accessing any the Module called Sheet* (Sheet*) would automatically add the Workbook_Change event.

How to use the Workbook_Change Event

You will note in the: Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range) there is a predefined variable called Target. This represents the Range Object of the cell that was changed after pushing Enter. It is not the cell you land in after pushing Enter! It is the variable called Target that we can use to determine exactly which cell has changed. See the simple example below

Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range)

    MsgBox "You just changed " & Target.Address

End Sub

Note how we use the Address Property of the Range Object (Target) to identify the cell.

Let's now see an example of how we can use the Address Property of the Range Object (Target) to only run code when a specific cell is changed. An example of working with a table of drugs and their characteristics would also be relevant. In the case below, we are going to multiply the new entry in A1 by 2, but only if a number has been entered. We have also told Excel to do nothing (exit sub) if more than one cell has been changed, or the data in A1 has been deleted.

Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range)

   'Do nothing if more than one cell is changed or content deleted

   If Target.Cells.Count > 1 Or IsEmpty(Target) Then Exit Sub


    If Target.Address = "$A$1" Then

       'Ensure target is a number before multiplying by 2

        If IsNumeric(Target) Then

            'Stop any possible runtime errors and halting code

            On Error Resume Next

                'Turn off ALL events so the Target * 2 does not _

                 put the code into a loop.

                Application.EnableEvents = False

                Target = Target * 2

                'Turn events back on

                Application.EnableEvents = True

            'Allow run time errors again

            On Error GoTo 0

        End If

    End If


End Sub

In the above code we have made use of Application.EnableEvents to ensure the multiplying of A1 by 2 does NOT cause the change event to run again and get itself in a loop.

If want the change event to run when/if more than one cell is changed, we would remove the Target.Cells.Count > 1 and replace all occurrences of Target (but not ByVal Target as Range) to Target(1,1). This then forces Excel to only consider the active cell should more than one cell be changed. If you are not aware, there can only ever be 1 active cell in any selection and that is always the cell you Start your selection from.

Monitor More Than 1 Cell (Target)

It is often needed that we run code when any cell in a range of cells changes. For example, lets say each time any cell in the range A1:A10 changes we need to multiple by 2. In this case we would use an If Not Statement, with the Intersect Method to determine if the Target is within the range A1:A10. That is;

If Not Intersect(Target, Range("A1:A10")) Is Nothing Then

If our range of cells to monitor is a non-contiguous range we would use;

If Not Intersect(Target, Range("A1,C1,E1")) Is Nothing Then

Running Code in Another ProcedureIf you already have a Procedure that resides in a standard public module (Insert>Module) we would use the Run Statement.

Run "MyMacro"

When/if doing as shown above, you will NOT be able to reference the variable Target from within MyMacro. If you need to you will need to declare a Global Variable at the top of any standard module, preferably the one that houses MyMacro, then Set Target to it. That is;

Public rTarget as Range

Then, in the Change Event we would use;

Set rTarget = Target

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